Sut i gyfeirnodi yr adroddiad gan Laming (2003) / How to reference the Laming report (2003) in APA format

Rydym wedi cael cwpwl o ymholiadau yr wythnos hon ar sut i gyfeirnodi yr adroddiad gan Lord Laming.  Dyma’r ateb i chi:

Yn y testun:
Laming (2003) neu (Laming, 2003).

Yn y rhestr o gyfeiriadau:
Laming, W. H. (2003). The Victoria Climbie inquiry: Report of an inquiry by Lord Laming (Cm. 5730). London: The Stationery Office.

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We’ve had a few queries this week about how to reference the Laming report. Here is the answer:

In text:
Laming (2003) or (Laming, 2003).

In the reference list:
Laming, W. H. (2003). The Victoria Climbie inquiry: Report of an inquiry by Lord Laming (Cm. 5730). London: The Stationery Office.

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1000 Lives Improvement

Rydym wedi cael cwpwl o ymholiadau yr wythnos hon ar sut i gyfeirnodi ddefnyddiau wedi’u ysgrifennu gan 1000 Lives Improvement.  Felly dyma’r atebion i chi:

Os yr ydych am gyfeirio at y llyfryn The Quality Improvement Guide yna ddilynwch yr esiampl yn ein canllaw APA ar gyfer Cyhoeddiadau Swyddogol ar-lein.

Yn y testun:
1000 Lives Improvement (2014) NEU (1000 Lives Improvement, 2014)

Yn y rhestr o gyfeiriadau:
1000 Lives Improvement. (2014). The quality improvement guide. Retrieved from http://www.1000livesplus.wales.nhs.uk/sitesplus/documents/1011/Quality%20Improvement%20Guide%20-%203rd%20edition%20%28IQT%29%20WEB.pdf

Pwysig:
Yn eich rhestr o gyfeiriadau mae angen rhestru o dan O.
Trin y rhifolyn fel petai wedi’i sillafu (er enghraifft, trin “1000” fel “One Thousand”).
—————————————————————————————————————————————-We’ve had a few queries about how to reference 1000 Lives Improvement materials this week so here are a few tips:

If you wanted to reference this booklet The Quality Improvement Guide follow the example in our APA guide for Online Official Publication.

In text:
1000 Lives Improvement (2014) OR (1000 Lives Improvement, 2014)

In the reference list:
1000 Lives Improvement. (2014). The quality improvement guide. Retrieved from http://www.1000livesplus.wales.nhs.uk/sitesplus/documents/1011/Quality%20Improvement%20Guide%20-%203rd%20edition%20%28IQT%29%20WEB.pdf

Important tip:
In the reference list this would file alphabetically under O.
Treat the numeral as though it was spelled out (for example, alphabetise “1000” as if it was “one thousand”).

Midwifery 2020

We’ve had a number of queries recently asking how to reference the Midwifery 2020 report.  Here is how to reference this document in the APA format:

In text (first cite):
(Chief Nursing Officers of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales (CNO), 2010).
OR
Chief Nursing Officers of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales (CNO, 2010).

In text (2nd cite):
(CNO, 2010)
OR
CNO (2010)

In reference list:
Chief Nursing Officers of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. (2010). Midwifery 2020: Delivering expectations. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/216029/dh_119470.pdf

 

5 days of referencing (#su5dor). Day 5.

Day 5. Useful tools.
There are a wide variety of tools which are freely available to help you with citing and creating reference lists, however none of them are perfect which is why it is important you know the basics of APA referencing and the key points to be aware of.

ifind, the library catalogue has a tool which recommends how books and journal articles should look in the APA style of referencing. Click on Library, then Actions then citation to view this. I have done a short screencast to show you this, click here to watch it.

ifind

Always check this! The tool is good but it will make some mistakes therefore you need to know which bits of information are required.

Referencing using word (Manage sources)
Word has a referencing tab on the tools bar which can be useful if you use the same laptop or computer to write assignments.  It will manage your sources and input in the correct APA style.  Take a look at our guide on using the referencing tool in Microsoft Word for more details on using this tool.

Endnote Online
Endnote is the tool Swansea University subscribes to, there is a desktop version for PCs on campus but the online version is very useful as you can use it anywhere that you have access to the internet.  Our guide can be found by clicking here and we can provide further training if you would like to use it.  You can create your own library of sources and use the cite while you write feature in word which will format your references in the APA style.

Thanks for participating in 5 days of referencing (#su5dor) remember referencing help and advice is always available from your CHHS librarians, you can book a one-one appointment (also available via skype), email us, or call in the Library to speak with one of us. You can also find lots of useful tips on our Library Guides pages.

If you’ve enjoyed this short course let us know using our short feedback form.
Good luck with your assignment.

5 days of referencing (#su5dor). Day 4.

Day 4. Formatting your reference list
Over the last 3 days we have looked at the 3 main information sources you will be using in your assignment, academic books, journal articles and online documents/websites.  It is important that your reference list provides all the information in order for your lecturers to be able to find the source if they wanted.

It is also important that it is formatted in the correct APA style.  This is sometimes where students struggle and spend a long time manually formatting their lists; however there are a number of tools in word that can make this process quicker and easier for you.

Key points

  • The reference list should start on a new page.
  • Your reference list should include everything you have cited in your assignment NOT everything you have read (which is called a bibliography).
  • It should be alphabetical according to author’s surname.
  • It should be double-spaced and indented.

If we use all the resources we have looked at over the last 3 days my reference list would look like this:Reference listTo do this is 3 easy steps in word, firstly highlight the reference list, then select the icon A-Z from the options, then to double space and indent the list choose the small arrow next to paragraph and from the options choose Special>Hanging, then Line spacing>double.

az

To show you how to format the list using the tools in word I have done a short screencast.  Click here to watch it.

Got a question? Just ask us using the Ask a Librarian Live Chat button, using the comments section in the blog or via twitter using #su5dor – Tomorrow we’ll look at tools that can help you reference.

5 days of referencing (#su5dor). Day 3.

Day 3. Websites and online documents.
Remember what we said on day 1? The key to referencing well in an assignment is firstly to use good reliable sources.  Make sure you evaluate anything you find online using the WWWW method:

Who – Who wrote the information?
Why –
Why is this information there (Is there a bias?)
When – When was it published (is it current enough?)
Where –
Where is it from (clues in the URL ie: .com, .ac.uk)

The main sections you need to make a note of in order to reference a website or online document correctly are:

  • Author(s) (personal or corporate)
  • Year of publication
  • Title of website/document
  • Date of retrieval (only needed if the source is likely to be updated)
  • Direct working URL

Very often some bits of information will not be available with online documents; a common one is no date – in this case you can do the following:

  • No date? – use (n.d.) instead

You can find further advice on pages 15 – 20 of our APA referencing guide.

In the reference list
Here are a few examples:

Websites
You only need to include a date of retrieval in the reference list if you think a website maybe updated (it’s difficult to know this sometimes).

Royal College of Nursing. (n.d.). Principles of nursing practice. Retrieved June 7, 2017, from https://www.rcn.org.uk/professional-development/principles-of-nursing-practice

Online publication
This reference links to the PDF version of the code which has a published date, therefore it does not need a date of retrieval.

Nursing & Midwifery Council. (2015). The code: Professional standards of practice and behaviour for nurses and midwives. Retrieved from http://www.nmc.org.uk/globalassets/sitedocuments/nmc-publications/revised-new-nmc-code.pdf

 In text citation
A good tip if you are going to use the same citation a few times in your assignment is to use acronyms.  You must explain the acronym in full the first time you use it, followed by the acronym so it is clear to your lecturer what is stands for.

First citation:
According to the Nursing & Midwifery Council (NMC, 2015, p. 5) a nurse must “recognise and respond compassionately to the needs of those who are in the last few days and hours of life.”

Or

According to the Nursing & Midwifery Council (NMC, 2015) a nurse must “recognise and respond compassionately to the needs of those who are in the last few days and hours of life” (p. 5).

Or

A nurse must “recognise and respond compassionately to the needs of those who are in the last few days and hours of life” (Nursing & Midwifery Council (NMC), 2015, p.5).

Second citation
Because you explained the acronym in the first citation you can now just use the acronym on any subsequent citations in text.

A nurse must “respect that a person’s right to privacy and confidentiality continues after they have died” (NMC, 2015, p. 6).

Or

The NMC (2015) state that a nurse must “respect that a person’s right to privacy and confidentiality continues after they have died” (p. 6).

Got a question? Just ask us using the Ask a Librarian Live Chat button, using the comments section in the blog or via twitter using #su5dor – Tomorrow we’ll look at formatting your reference list.

5 days of referencing (#su5dor). Day 2.

Day 2. Journal articles
Journal articles are an excellent source of up-to-date and reliable information. Your lecturer for SHN126 has recommended over 20 articles for you to read (you don’t need to read them all!) which you can see in the reading list section of this module on Blackboard.

If we look at the reading list SHN126 your lecturer recommends you read an article called Professional practice skills for nurses written by Winnifred Groves.

There are a few more bits of information in a journal article which you need to make a note of in order to reference it correctly. The main sections you need to make a note of in order to reference a journal article correctly are:

  • Author(s)
  • Year of publication
  • Title of article
  • Journal name
  • Volume
  • Issue number (only use if there is no continuous pagination, i.e.: if each issue begins with page 1)
  • Page number
  • doi (if available)

If you have the journal article in front of you, you can normally find this information on the first page.  Alternatively search for the article on ifind, the library catalogue (using the articles & more tab) and you will be able to see the bibliographic information you need in order to reference correctly.

This is how this journal article would look in the reference list
Groves, W. (2014). Professional practice skills for nurses. Nursing Standard, 29(1), 51.

In text citation
Sometimes you may want to cite a direct quote in your assignment, however try to use direct quotes sparingly as paraphrasing shows more understanding of your topic.

If you decide you would like to include a direct quote it is very important you use quotation marks and you always include page numbers.  There are a number of ways you can do this:

At the start of the sentence:
According to Groves (2014, p. 52)The commitment to provide excellent care that is safe, compassionate and holistic is integral to nursing.”

Or

According to Groves (2014)The commitment to provide excellent care that is safe, compassionate and holistic is integral to nursing” (p. 52).

At the end of the sentence:
The commitment to provide excellent care that is safe, compassionate and holistic is integral to nursing”(Groves, 2014, p. 52).

How many authors should I include?
Journal articles and indeed books can sometimes be written by many authors, APA has a specific rule for how many authors you should include in-text.

Let’s use this journal article as an example:

Williams, V., Kinnear, D., & Victor, C. (2016). ‘It’s the little things that count’: Healthcare professionals’ views on delivering dignified care: A qualitative study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 72, 782-790.

If the resource you want to cite has 3-5 authors (which this example does) you must include all the authors the first time you cite, therefore it would look like this in text:

First citation
According to Williams, Kinnear and Victor (2016) the preservation of dignity is a key role in nursing care.

Or

The preservation of dignity  is a key role in nursing care (Williams, Kinnear, & Victor, 2016).

Second citation
Because you included all 3 authors in the first citation you can now use et al. on any subsequent citations in text.

Williams et al. (2016) state that maintaining dignity in older adults is particularly important.

Or

Maintaining dignity in older adults is particularly important (Williams et al., 2016).

If the resource you want to cite has 6 or more authors you can use et al. the first time you cite.

Got a question? Just ask us using the Ask a Librarian Live Chat button, using the comments section in the blog or via twitter using #su5dor – Tomorrow we’ll look at websites and online documents.