Referencing multiple items with the same author and date

We’ve had a few enquiries recently about how to reference multiple items when the author and the date are the same.

If you are referencing multiple items with the same author and date, you reference alphabetically using the title of the item. You also need to add lowercase letters, in alphabetical order, to the date to distinguish the references, for example:

Baillie, L. (2009a). Developing practical nursing skills (4th ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Baillie, L. (2009b). Patient dignity in an acute hospital setting: A case study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46, 23-37. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.08.003

In-text, you would refer to these references as either (Baillie, 2009a) or Baillie (2009a) and (Baillie, 2009b) or Baillie (2009b).

Remember that when you cite the reference in-text, you add the lowercase letter which corresponds to where the item appears in the reference list, so in this example, it could be that (Baillie, 2009b) is mentioned in the text of the assignment before (Baillie, 2009a).

Referencing multiple items, with the same authors but no date

If the authors are the same, but the items don’t have a date, you need to write n.d., for no date, and add the lowercase letters as before, but this time you also need a hyphen before the letter e.g. (n.d.-a).

Here are some examples:

Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board. (n.d.-a). Falls risk assessment tool. (n.p.): Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board.

Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board. (n.d.-b). Pressure ulcer risk assessment: Waterlow. (n.p.): Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board.

Then in-text, you could reference the first example as either:  Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board (n.d.-a) or (Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board, n.d.-a).

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